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Glossary

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B

BRG

Brand Registry Group: The BRG is a trade association representing the interests of brand owners who applied for single registrant, closed registries with ICANN.

C

ccTLD

Country-Code Top Level Domain: A class of top-level domain for countries and territories listed in the ISO 3166-1 lists. The Root Zone Database has more information.

D

DNS

The Domain Name System (DNS) helps users to find their way around the Internet. The DNS translates user-friendly, unique alphanumeric addresses (or domain names) into more complicated, machine-readable, numerical internet protocol (IP) addresses. So instead of typing 207.151.159.3, you can type www.internic.net.

Domain name

A domain name is a text name or string of charaters (e.g. comlaude.com) which provides a more memorable name to stand in for the address of a computer  on the internet (which is typically a set of numbers, known as an IP address).  Domain names must be unique. A web user can access a website by typing its domain name into the address bar of their web browser. Domain names are also used in email addresses to ensure an email is sent to the right person.

dot brand domain

A dot brand domain is a new generic Top Level Domain that has been registered by a brand (sometimes know as a closed generic). Examples include: .gucci, .microsoft, .kpmg

G

gTLD - Generic Top-Level Domain

A generic top-level domain (gTLD) is a domain name extension which is not associated with a particular region or country. .com and .net are examples of gTLDs. There are many so called new gTLDs such as .london, .law and .tickets.

I

ICANN

The global body for domain name administration - see www.icann.org

IDN

Internationalised Domain Name: A domain name including characters used in the local representation of scripts not written with the basic Latin alphabet (a-z). An IDN can contain Latin letters with diacritical marks, as required by many European languages, or may consist of characters from non-Latin scripts such as Arabic or Chinese.

IP Address

An IP address is the address given to a computer on the internet. It is typically a set of numbers and is hard to remember, which is why they're converted into domain names which tend to be memorable strings of letters and numbers.

L

Landrush

The landrush phase is a period of time immediately following the launch of a TLD and provides the first opportunity for the general public to apply to register a domain name in that particular TLD.

N

Name servers

Name servers are the computers on the internet that signpost where to go, they translate domain names into IP addresses.

R

Registrant

Registrants are the internet users who register domain names.

Registrar

An ICANN-accredited registrar is an entity that registrants must use to register domain names.

Registry

A registry is an authoritative master database of domain names registered in each top level domain. A registry operator maintains the master database of domain names for that registry. In addition, they produce the “zone files” that direct internet traffic to and from top level domains from any global location.

Registry Agreement

The agreement executed between ICANN and successful gTLD applicants, which appears as an attachment to Module 5 of the Applicant Guidebook.

Registry operator

The entity entering into the Registry Agreement with ICANN, responsible for setting up and maintaining the operation of the registry.

Renewal

Every domain name must be renewed on a regular basis, either every year, or every set number of years up to every ten years. If a domain name registration is not renewed, it will lapse and be available for others to register.

Root Zone

The root zone database represents the delegation details of top-level domains, including gTLDs and ccTLDs. As manager of the DNS root zone, IANA is responsible for coordinating these delegations in accordance with its policies and procedures.

S

Sunrise

Sunrise is a pre-launch phase providing trademark holders the opportunity to register domain names in a TLD before registration is generally available to the public.

T

Trademark Clearinghouse

The Trademark Clearinghouse, is a method by which brands were supposed to be able to protect their names during the introduction of new gTLDs. It was supposed to remove costs, but the end implementation, whereby brand owners were able to register domains during a sunrise period led to several gTLDs charging brand owners considerable fees for their names.

U

UDRP

Uniform Dispute Resolution Policy: A policy for resolving disputes arising from alleged abusive registrations of domain names (for example, cybersquatting), allowing expedited administrative proceedings that a trademark rights holder initiates by filing a complaint with an approved dispute resolution service provider.

URS

Uniform Rapid Suspension: URS provides trademark holders with a rapid and efficient mechanism to “take down” undeniably infringing domain names. A successful proceeding will result in suspension of the domain name. Compliance with results is mandatory for all new gTLD operators. It is designed as a quicker and cheaper alternative to the UDRP, but only for clear-cut cases of infringement.

W

WHOIS

WHOIS provides public access to data associated with registered domain names. Databases can be queried that contain information such as registration and expiry dates, name servers, registrar information and registrant contact information. Registrars must remind registrants to update, review and correct their WHOIS data at least once a year. Domain name registrations may be cancelled if the registrant provides false WHOIS data.

Z

Zone file

The zone file contains all resource records associated with a domain name.